How does rising atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms?

Learn how plants respond to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations

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E

Earthworm surface casts
Chemically processed soil that has been egested from the digestive tracts of earthworms that are usually rich in carbon and nitrogen.  Casts are egested by some earthworm species in coils upon the soil surface.

Ecosystems
Communities of plants, animals and bacteria, generally composed of producers, consumers and decomposers, that share a common physical and chemical environment.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi
A type of mycorrhizal fungi whose network of hyphae (mycelium)does not physically penetrate the cells of its host plant's roots or grow within its tissues.

Ectotherms
Organisms that regulate their body temperature primarily through behavioral modifications and adaptations, rather than by manipulating their rate of metabolism.

Empirical
Based on actual or measured data.

Energy budget
An accounting of all fluxes of energy into and out of a particular object, such as earth's atmosphere.

El Niņo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
A complex phenomenon related to the periodic warming of surface and near-surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, due to a reversal in east-to-west pressure patterns in the tropical Pacific.

Enzyme
A substance produced in plant and animal cells that can cause changes in other substances by catalytic action.

Eocene
The period of time referred to in earth's geologic history comprising the last 35 to 55 million years, that was punctuated by the warmest climatic conditions of the past 100 million years.

Epiphyte
An organism that attaches to another organism without detrimentally affecting it.

Epizootic
A disease that is temporarily prevalent among many animals.

Eustatic Sea Level Change
Changes in sea level caused by changes in the water volume of the world's oceans, such as those brought about by the formation or melting of mountain glaciers and polar ice caps.

Evapotranspiration
The sum total of plant water loss derived from transpiration and evaporation.

Evergreen
Perennial plant species that maintain a green appearance by retaining large portions of their foliage throughout the winter months.  Such species do not enter a period of winter dormancy and continue to photosynthesize and grow even during the coldest months of the year.

Extraterrestrial-volatile-accretion (ETV)
The buildup of volatile elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen on the earth, derived from extraterrestrial sources such as comets or other primitive solar system material.