How does rising atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms?

Click to locate material archived on our website by topic

Northeastern Caribbean Sea, South of Puerto Rico
Nyberg, J., Malmgren, B.A., Kuijpers, A. and Winter, A. 2002. A centennial-scale variability of tropical North Atlantic surface hydrography during the late Holocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 183: 25-41.

The authors reconstructed 2000-year histories of cold-season (February-April) and warm-season (August-October) sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, using, in their words, "an artificial neural network and δ18O analyses of planktonic foraminifera" -- which operations were based on data obtained from sediment cores extracted south of Puerto Rico (1753.26'N, 6636.02'W) -- finding that "a warmer period prevailed in the NE Caribbean from AD ~700-950." Peak cold-season SSTs during this period were about 0.5C warmer than their late 20th-century counterparts, while peak warm-season SSTs of the earlier period were about 1.0C cooler than those of the late 20th-century. Hence, we conclude that the peak mean warmth of the MWP was about a quarter of a degree cooler than that of the most recent decade or two of the CWP.