How does rising atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms?

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Barrow Strait, Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Vare, L.L., Masse, G., Gregory, T.R., Smart, C.W. and Belt, S.T. 2009. Sea ice variations in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago during the Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 28: 1354-1366.

Based on IP25 data obtained from a marine sediment core retrieved from Barrow Strait (7416.05'N, 9106.38'W), which they compared with "complementary proxy data obtained form analysis of other organic biomarkers, stable isotope composition of bulk organic matter, benthic foraminifera, particle size distributions and ratios of inorganic elements," Vare et al. developed a spring sea ice record that provided evidence for a decrease in spring sea ice between approximately 1200 and 800 years before present (BP), which was followed by an increase in sea ice over the last 400 years of their record (between 800 and 400 years BP). "Interestingly," as they describe it, "these latter two intervals coincide with, respectively, the so-called Mediaeval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, which commonly feature in lower latitude palaeo-climatic studies."